About the Concept
There is a compelling sense to use the findings of the study of deterministic chaos in the study of the development of societies primarily in the past in order to explain the structure of societies existing now and potentially the future development of current societies in the times to come. As deterministic chaos is a result of variables and factors inherent in a system, and notably non-linear variables for that matter, assuming as a system, the communities formed in their various physical representations such as villages, towns, cities, states defined by geographical or political boundaries and identifying the variables (if possible determine their non-linearity) guiding the evolutionary processes in the passage of time.
Extracts can reveal potential social non-linear variables
The search for variables whith a potential to establish a theory for a deterministic chaos approach to societies evolution, starts by recognising in texts dealing with historical events ideas with inherent the effects of processes which might be the result of variables, acting over a social context, and can be potential non-linear factors of an intrinsic network run by the rules of deterministic chaos.
The existence of interconnected pool of ideas
E.L. Jones mentions for Eurasia's past, as world history at its most active, because of the existence of an interconnected pool of ideas which it assisted the diffusions of technical and organizational best practices among the world's major cultures whereas in the remainder of the world, where people were not concentrated or if were at all concentrated, the concentrations were small and scattered, therefore there was a lack of an interconnected pool of ideas, then at periods when rates of invention, innovation, and diffusion were low, and may have been what have kept them behind the times.
What is significant here is the pool of ideas, characteristic in cultures, which however are interconnected by communication channels in various forms from culture to culture. Such communication channels are prerequisites for exchange of ideas, and certainly have evolved from an early age by the physical presence of human agents, nomads, traders, sea-farers, conquerors, plunderers, slaves and later immigrants then the passage of manuscripts, books, newspapers, concentrated carriers of ideas to the current more prevalent electronic media of the world wide web and internet.
It is evident that the existence of commnication channels brings forward the question of the amount of information flow through the channels and can be measured as a factor which depends on the size of the communities involved in the exchange and the ability of the information to reach a greater proportion of the people in a community. In early ages the communication channels were limited as it comprised only of the people involved in the flow, them being the traders or sea-farers or conquerors. The information therefore could reach only a limited number of people in the community.
The whole idea is that there are some people who, in the same way that they might have an edge in a particular physical ability, likewise there are people who might have an edge in a particular physical ability. Physical abilities are overt and therefore easily recognisable and their lack or possesion can be identified and become part of a person`s character and personality. Most of the times, identification results in further development of the initial ability to higher levels of skill for improvement in more demanding fields of human activities. The same goes for mental abilities and it is the purpose of educational processes to effect such a development of higher skills in these persons. the prblem is not about the possesion of particular mental abilities but the lack of such abilities to a particular bearer. The lack of any of mental abilities are the determining factor in the attitude of the bearer to the educational processes. It usually alienates the bearer to the extent it isolates and becomes hostile to the educational process detrimental to his own learning process as well of others. It is paramount to dissociate the educational processes from the possesion or lack of mental abilities and concentrate on the acquisition of knowledge regardless of the person's mental abilities. a big part of the mental abilities is quite generic and confer very little of an edge to their bearer as most of the ineligence in a person it depends more in known facts and concepts and not in how can somebody think. If a person does not have the appropriate knowledge it would have a wrong substrate upon which informed decisions can be based and decision making will faulter.
Anthropomorphic model of societies as a tool for analysing its development status
Each individual has a range of potential characteristics. Traits which to a different extent contribute to the overall character of the individual. Its personality is determined by a struggle as groups of traits or inidividualy compete or act in a positive manner together against other groups of traits to influence the personality of the individuals. In a larger scale we can assume likewise for the whole of society in a similar manner, though in this case it is not a matter of traits or groups of trais charcterising a single individual but a group of individuals. The size of the group can vary from a small group of single classroom to that of the school in its totality to the size of a village, town, city, community, state to the whole of a world society. The sum of the traits carried by the individuals of a given population as they are competing with each other in the same way that they are competing in the intelectual, emotional, inner environment of a single individual. The end result determines the behaviour of the group of individuals. Each individual contributes with his actions, by its own emergent characteristics the emergent behaviour of the group it belongs to. The group therefore appears and acts as the collective anthropising of its group. Thsi can be used to determine the level of development and the status of the group. The ever competing traits will give its outward trend of behaviour which it will organised in the usual manner of the whole it is more than the sum of its parts principle. The outcome of all the dynamically involved traits will provide a rich substrate which will combine in ways which at first glance will be impossible to predict. However trends can be discerned and these can be controlled along lines which are considered beneficial. It is assumed that traits which are considered prohibiting to natural growth can be identified and their proportion in the individuals of a given group can be minimised so their overall effect in the ensuing interactions can be checked whereas the favourable traits can be boosted and their effects maximised towards a more beneficial outcome. It can be argued that this process is already ongoing without the conscious interference of the individuals in group and this is evident by the study of the evolution of social structures through history. If one takes into account the suppressed status of the communities through the centuries and their emancipated status which most prevalent in the modern world today somebody can see the power which efected these changes. From the other point one can see that the ruling classes in whatever form have appeared in history have proved a restraint to the natural process in the development of communities.
Imagination a pre-requistite for the creation of new knowledge
Today, the acquisition of new knowledge requires, more precisely it relies upon a large dose of imagination. Knowledge acquisition, in almost every discipline, has reached the point where the application of reason is not enough to deduce new theories. Scientists rely on intuition to provide the seeds to spawn new knowledge. Young people are endowed with imagination and it should be used to create new knowledge. Of course their imagination must have a rich background, so their thoughts would not be unreasoned figments of a wayward mind. They should have the concepts upon which their fertile imagination will propagate new conceptual structures. So their imagination needs guidance. They should assimilate the concepts that are nesseccary for an adequate substrate to work upon. The concepts needed have to be chosen carefully for fast assimilation and maximum effectiveness. Education has to be targeted towards effectiveness and therefore concepts taught must be devoid of hubris. The educatees importance must be stressed and valued. Their contribution aknowledged and rewarded.
Processes are repeated through history and in the recent ages
There is always talk about remnants of long lost processes in the daily community life, as in each civilization many different value systems coexist along with the vestiges of earlier stages in the development of a culture. These value systems build institutions and determine attitudes and behaviour. Attitudes and behaviour are the result of the evolution in the history of ideas, doctrines and ideologies
The place of economic advancement in the history of civilizations
As in the consciousness of many people the prevalent position of economy and economic institutions brings about feelings and sensations of abhorement, disgust and helplessness as the feelings of being entrapped in the vices of all economic establishments, with the state foremost of all, being through history and into the modern age, the unrelenting vehicles of the imposition of the will of the few to the many, taking various forms from absolute tyrants, the monarchs, the kings, the feudal sovereigns and aristocracy to the modern capitalists, tycoons and their pawns, parliamentary politicians, eternally geared towards accumulating wealth and power in increasing less and less undeserving individuals, in violation to all to all natural laws, a vile blemish in the dignity of humanity. The realisiation that economic institutions are needed, which any way they can not forget as they are constantly reminded by state instruments, has developed, and can not be refuted, in the long history of all civilizations as a result of the human individuals efforts for preservation and survival in their surrounding environments. And as their efforts to survive were undergoing, they stumbled across the miracle of the human mind, entered the realm of ideas and built civilizations all over the world. Though secondary in achievement to economic growth, proved however beneficial and primary in importance over economic achievement as it provided the means, intelectual tools, for man's emancipation from its basest of insticts, the imposition of the will of one individual over another, with its cruellest of all, of one over many, as humanity experienced, documented in history. Gradually, the will of the many managed to come to surface and the absolute or partial rule of the few to the many denied.
Plagiarism a poppycock theory of a privilege hungry intelectual elite
Ideas are not the property of any one individual but collective gains of man as a whole and could not have been achieved independently, in isolation and despite of other men in a civilization. Ideas are achieved by being grasped from the huge tapestry of thoughts flowing in the minds of individuals in civilizations hammered into a plethora of shapes in the anvil of their brains endlessly shuffled acquiring new meanings extending the breadth of the original concepts from which they have been derived. Plagiarism, in the selfish way it is employed restraints this free flow of ideas, usurping the ideas of man as solely theirs, for purely private gains as if they would have been able to arrive to them in isolation from other men. Therefore, instead of rejoice in the advancement of human thought there is a hopeless act of senseless superiority of the bearer over other people. This is promoted by universities and other higher institutions in their relentless pursuit of meaningless prestige in the almost inhuman pressure applied to their employees. In this endeavour they ignore the wander of the feat achieved in the mind of the individual that delves into the realm of ideas as they enter into their minds freely, being arranged, re-arranged, categorised and most of all creating new associations, in parallel creating thinking, and when they emerge back on the surface, they have acquired new meaning, extending the conceptual arsenal of ideas. Each and every individual is equipped with the nesseccary brain infrastructure to contribute in the proliferaion of ideas and this contribution should be induced and not be ignored, bellitled, discouraged by an elite bend on proving their superiority using the dictates of plagiarism yielded as a lingering Damocles sword over the necks of all other inferior minds.
Trace of a potential deterministic chaos related variable
The famine relief arrangements under Chien Lung (1711-1799), the fourth emperor of the Ch'ing, or Manchu, dynasty in China , and the possibility that this may have induced peasant farmers to produce and market less grain, a result of depressed incentives. Whereas in Europe, with a greater reliance on the market and therefore incentives at full force were surpassing problems of famine before they needed to be relieved. Despite the dubious approach in the problem, namely sources and universal application of the rules, famines happened and the effectiveness of market forces in dealing with famines, what emerges is the vigour of communities to survive through natural disasters, merely the survival of the fittest in contrast to the total anihilation of the community. This is basic trait in nature for any species. It can be seen in the eradication of virulent bacteria by employing ever stronger antibiotics. There is always bacteria that survive such an onslaught, adapt and proliferate ever more virulent and more pathogenic. Are there any common traits? Processes are universal, apply equally in disparate fields, the survival struggle of bacteria follows the same processes as people in communities, in their development through history into our modern societies, through famines, conquests, natural disasters are the humans' struggle for survival and by populating the communities with the fittest of them, hardened and ruthless (according to virulent). So, when we are talking about incentives, these are incentives for survival or perish.
Incentives, their true natureAn individual who has everything he needs would not strive to acquire anything more, since anything he needs is already there and therefore he will do absolutely nothing and instead he will devote his life in enjoying whatever he has. It is the pressing needs that require solutions which will push individuals from sendetary habits into active growing inventive and innovative habits. These are the incentives which have been responsible for growth in economies in the development of communities through history. If man was born in paradise he would have remained unchanged in his entire history. It is because man has been put through hell that he is what he is now. Weird notions, disturbing but they do follow a logical conclusion. Arguments put forward to explain how men produced creative work that left distinct marks in the history of civilizations and stood undetered the test of time all through history it was a result of harsh and hostile circumstances that these men lived through and provided the incentives for their creative work.
Ideas are which embattle in survival struggles and the fittest survive
The struggle of survival for the human species has been fought millions of years before its relative recent past and the fittest of them survived to participate in the latest chapter of human history in what we call as history of civilizations. During these times it was not the survival of the human species which struggled but the communities of men and the fittest of them survived and expanded. Their struggle was mainly fought by the ideas, beliefs which they developed and not by their physical strength. By the strength of their ideas the ideals of their community spread to other communities till they have become prevalent in greater territories.
Accumulated capital and economic growth and its role in the development of communities
One of the conditions of growth is to provide a potentialy growth process with adequate starting power to advance, an investment of resources which will boost the promising situation to further its goals. In the case of economic growth this is provided by accumulated capital. And this has been shown to have worked as it can be seen by looking at the history of developed societies, as their development was possible when the merchants and bankers had accumulated sufficient capital available for enterprenours as loans to kickstart their investment programs. The rise of the merchant classes and the growth of commerce which carried them upwards followed the decline of power of the feudal sovereigns, monarchs and rulers as for them capital which was accumulating was only used to be spend for their own personal pleasure therefore wasting its growth potential. The growth potential of capital for the creation of favorable conditions served as an inducement and as goal for individuals to accumulate more and more capital, the capitalists.
Extract from 'Medieval Idea of Poverty and the Social Reality' chapter
The history of cultures, attitudes and social structures does not easily admit of clear divisions into well-defined periods or eras; any such division must be arbitrary. In the history of ideas, doctrines and ideologies, on the other hand , such divisions are easier to define: historical analysis allows us to trace the evolution of concepts and ideas, to discern semantic changes as well as continuities of meaning and connotation. But changes in collective attitudes and value systems are hidden and elusive, and they occur slowly, over a vast time-scale. Our points of reference when attempting to trace and define changes of this kind are the great structures of civilization; but when such structures disintegrate, at times of profound crisis, changes in attitudes and behaviour are not always clear and immediate. Nor can civilizations easily be distinguished by clearly defined hierarchies of values, for in each civilization many different value systems coexist, along with vestiges of earlier stages in the development of its culture. But if, in spite of this, historians persist in studying changes in collective attitudes, it is not because their diachronic view of human events leads them to slice up history into periods and eras where no natural periods and eras exist, but because of the internal dynamics of cultures. In every civilization praise of wealth may be found alongside its condemnation, pacifism alongside the glorification of war, the exaltation of physical work alongside the praise of reflection. But the hierarchy of values changed at different periods, constantly reshuffled by ideological programmes indented to justify or to condemn the existing social order and to promote or repudiate a particular set of values.
It is quite significant the description of cultures, collective attitudes and social structures (described as behaviour and value systems), the result of the action of ideas, doctrines, ideologies, using the concept of history. The ideas, doctrines, ideologies carried individually, guide the action of the members and shape the culture, collective attitude, social structure. By using the concept of history include the progress of a particular described construct as it changes over a defined time-scale.
Another significant point is the finding that changes in collective attitudes and value systems are hidden and elusive, and that they occur slowly, over a vast time-scale as well as that value systems coexist, along with vestiges of earlier stages in the development of its culture. These vestiges would represent values still carried by members of cultures, collective attitudes and social structures. Significant is the description using the concept of dynamics, the internal dynamics of cultures. Further, the mention of engineering the development of cultures, collective attitudes, social structures by ideological programmes indented to justify or to condemn the existing social order and to promote or repudiate a particular set of values.
Emergence studies provide ways to understand the evolution of civilizations
Civilizations are systems of adaptive agentsCivilisations are system of adaptive agents as the markets which their development in history has shaped the structures civilizations assumed as a result. The whole idea of 'learning' by producing models which experience provide can be taken as an attribute of a whole of each civilization, a process undergone collectively and these 'learning' processes are the myriad social acts and events as members in civilizations interact with each other.
The strong similarities in the complexities that arise in adaptive systems makes it possible to use the findings achieved in a particular adaptive system to other systems as well. This supposes that the processes involved in the evolution of disparate adaptive systems are structurally the same and all we require to achieve is the knowledge of particular processes and apply them to elucidate the events involved. The study of civilizations through history offers the advantage that all or at least most of the data required are present all it is needed is to use them in a correct manner as the dictates of emergence in adaptive systems prescribe.
The particular finding in the adaptive system of the checkersplayer program in modeling the opponent's strategy as vital to its success, can be used in the adaptive system of civilization. It is not a novelty to assume that 'learning' the opponents' strategy took place in many levels in the history of civilizations and it was crucial in the success or not of any particular civilizations. In fact, is responsible, and because of it, surviving civilizations managed to achieve their current status in the modern world. The success or not of this particular collective 'learning' process was determined by its extent as well as by the degree of assimilation of its findings in the culture of any particular civilization. Currently, the level of its application can be determined postmortem for extinct civilizations and for exemplification and refinement in surviving civilizations.
E.L. Jones, "Growth Recurring, Economic Change in World History", 1988
- Almost four out of five people in the world lived in five main societies in 1750; quite four out five lived in at most seven societies. Where the remainder of the world's peoples were at all concentrated, the concentrations were small and scattered. These were usually outside the great landmass of Eurasia, and their isolation from the diffusions of technical and organizational best practices among the world's major cultures, at periods when rates of invention, innovation, and diffusion were low, may have been what kept them behind the times. The existence of its interconnected pool of ideas is one of main reasons for focusing on Eurasia's past. World history was at its most active there.
- Walt Rostow, in How it all Began, on the problem `Why Traditional Societies Did Not Generate Self-sustained Growth', the answer is quickly given that the pre-modern world failed to make "a systematic, regular, and progressive aplication of science and technology to the production of goods and services". To the need to probe beyond the lack of a regular flow of new technology, there was, he says, a conceptual failure, a weakness in the realm of ideas, not enouh science was generated. Why was that? Partly because of a cultural failure, located mainly in the minds of rulers who saw no worthwhile pay-off to investing in increased productivity. Whenever their revenues fell short of requirements, they tried to squeeze the existing tax base for more than could be had and by so doing cut off the chances of growth.
- It is better to think of religions, and other values and institutions, as filters through which action had to pass, to be slowed down or sanctified or winked at according to the occasion, but not as unyielding obstacles. Values and institutions may determine the form and probably do greatly influence the pace of change, but they contain their own incosistencies and hidden flexibilities of the kinds nicely demonstrated for Islam by Kuran. (21) Although religions may appear to have been hostile at first, once a prospect of economic change was offered they tended to develop subtle vocabularies of Doublespeak and reshape themselves to accept part of Mammon's cold embrace.
- An essential difference between the two historical systems of China and Europe lay in the mix between state action and the market. Both societies employed both means of handling economic problems, but not to the same degree. China's famine relief arrangements under the Chien Lung emperor eclipsed those of Europe, but this success depended on the ability of the state to organise food supplies and that ability did not last. Put not your trust in princes. While it lasted it may actually have depressed incentives for peasant farmers to produce and market enough grain. Europe's greater reliance on the market dissolved more of the problem before it needed to be relieved. Prevention is better than cure.
- Favourable conditions for growth took a long time to evolve in both Japan and Europe. Viewed on the canvas of world history, or at least on that of Eurasia, success amounted to the reassertion of growth tendendies apparent in earlier times, but now welling up in unexpected places. Had growth been the rather sudden and discrete event portrayed as the industrial revolution, it might be clearer what sort of variables we should consider; they might be more conventionally 'economic'. Instead, the ultimate sources of change in societies as different as those of Japan and Europe were subtle and problematic and, as much as anything, by-products of evolving political structures.
- The proposition that some people in any society will strive to improve their material lot, and if unimpeded may well succeed in doing so, contains its own dilemma. Where growth did occur the impediments must be judged too weak to have stopped; where there was no growth the impediments must seem too strong. The danger of circularity is obvious. Can we escape this by making an independent estimate of the strength of the negative factors? Given that the resistance to growth seems to have been a tricky interaction of poorly recorded political and institutional factors, the task is very difficult.
J.L. White, "The Origins of Modern Europe 1660-1789", 1964
- Paul-Henri, Baron d`Holbach (1723-89) held (Le vrai sens du Systeme de la nature, 1770) all religions to be false, for in the world there only exists matter endowed with feeling; sensations felt by matter create what is called thought, which he equated with the soul, so when the body comes to an end so must the soul likewise, and therefore all religions that teach of immortality, or even of God, are `lies`.
- From this one might be tempted to suppose that it would be a waste of time to teach any moral system, but Holbach contradicts himself; few men, he thought, are ruled by Reason, and the majority needed to be led by some sort of moral system, and even by some sort of religion.
- So the State would have to manufacture a religion for them. It would not resemble other religions, though, for it would teach self-evident truths designed only for the happiness of mankind.
- Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-78), puts forward (Emile, 1762) the view that children, being naturally good, should be brought up with kindness and in an atmosphere of freedom; and in this his influence has been wide and beneficial to the present day.
- In a great measure thanks to Rousseau then everyone became aware of what so many of the other philosophes had said less effctively, that is, that Man is not naturally wicked, only miserable, that man needed pity and love, and that social and political reforms needed to be based on a feeling of Fraternity.
- Denis Diderot (1713-84) taught that man is naturally good and that only an evil religion has made us believe otherwise. But, he said, we cannot be happy if we are selfish because that leads to strife, and besides we have a natural need of affection which others will not give us unless we treat them properly.
- The most obvious teaching of the Natural Law was that men were dependent on each other. So in a natural society the sensible thing was for men to exchange with each other goods they could best produce, or had least use for; and would gain. Hence as a result of each man following his own self-interest, a natural harmony would be established by men. (This is a sort of providential attitude towards economic life, for a `hidden hand` guided seemingly selfish chaos into a natural harmony.) Since men worked best when they worked for their own private gain, the first duty of the State was to remove completely any restrictions whatsoever. There must be complete freedom: freedom of contract, freedom of trade without hampering restrictions or customs duties, and freedom to follow one's best abilities, that is, freedom to follow any career, and equality of opportunity. Only thus could the natural harmony come about.
Bronislaw Geremek, "Poverty A History", 1994
- The history of cultures, attitudes and social structures does not easily admit of clear divisions into well-defined periods or eras; any such division must be arbitrary. In the history of ideas, doctrines and ideologies, on the other hand, such divisions are easier to define: historical analysis allows us to trace the evolution of concepts and ideas, to discern semantic changes as well as continuities of meaning and connotation. But changes in collective attitudes and value systems are hidden and elusive, and they occur slowly, over a vast time-scale.
- Our points of reference when attempting to trace and define changes of this kind are the great structures of civilization; but when such structures disintegrate, at times of profound crisis, changes in attitudes and behaviour are not always clear and immediate. Nor can civilizations easily be distinguished by clearly defined hierarchies of values, for in each civilization many different value systems coexist, along with vestiges of earlier stages in the development of its culture.
John H. Holland, "Emergence from chaos to Order", 1998
- Any serious study of emergence must confront learning. Despite the perpetual novelty of the world, we contrive to turn experience into models of that world. We learn how to behave, and we anticipate the future, using the models to guide us in activities both common and uncommon. Somehow, through learning, these models emerge from the torrent of sensations that impinge upon us at every moment. Certaimnly, a deeper understanding of learning and model building will contribute to a deeper understanding of emergence. In attempting to understand the relation between learning and model building, we could scarcely find a better starting point than Art Samuel's mechanization of learning in the checkersplaying program.
- Art Samuel ..... was working at the level of strategies. He selected building blocks desribing features of the game relevant to good play, and then provided ways of weighting and combining these building blocks to define strategies. Most of all, he was interested in use of experience to modify and improve these strategies. It is at this level, well removed from neurons and neurophysiological psychology, that the model mimics learning. The principles and rules of thump uncovered-clarifying the exploration of options (lookahead), subgoals, modeling the actions of other players, and learning in the absence of reinforcement-are at least as important now as at the time Samuel uncovered them. As we'll see ...., these principles have a central role in agent-based models of emergence and innovation.
- Art Samuel’s checkersplayer provides a concrete and fascinating, illustration of ideas important to an understanding of emergence.
To see why the ideas are important, let’s look first at the interlocking problems Samuel conronted in this first attempt at Machine Learning:
- 1. The programmed checkersplayer had to handle the perpetual novelty of the game.
- 2. The checkersplayer had to learn to make appropriate moves during the play of the game, in the absence of any immediate feedback as to whether the moves chosen were good or bad.
- 3. The checkersplayer had to learn about early "stage-setting" moves that make possible later obviously good moves.
- 4. The checkersplayer had to model its opponents.
The difficulty of these obstacles is compounded by Samuel’s desire that the program learns to overcome the obstacles, using experience acquired while playing the game. The emergence of good play is the objective of Samuel’s study.
- Self-directed modeling of the opponent is the part of Samuel's work most often overlooked when other researchers examine his ideas. Perhaps the reason for this oversight is the form of the model. It is the function formed by giving the features weights that reflect their importance. ........ In Samuel’s work this function of weighted features plays a quite different role: it defines a strategy.
- The ability to model the opponent’s strategy is vital to the success of Samuel’s checkersplayer. It serves as grist for the program’s learning mill. As the checkersplayer gains experience, it improves its model of what its opponents can do. This modeling of others’ strategies takes on added interest nowadays, because of our attempts to understand systems of adaptive agents-markets, ecosystems, immune systems, and the like (see Cowan, G. A. et al., "Complexity: Metaphors, Models, and Reality", 1994). As in checkersplaying, these agents change their strategies on the basis of experience. The complexities that arise bear strong similarities to the problems Samuel faced, and the design of the checkersplayer suggests ways of understanding these complexities.
Alison W. Phillips, "Modern Europe, European History 1815-1899", 1932
- Beneath the surface of society the chaotic insticts of the brute struggle for existence are ever seething and pressing against the crust-a crust which itself represents no more than the crystallisation of those elements which earlier convulsions have thrown to the surface; and in an age like the ninenteenth century, of unparalleled material expansion, the consequent changes to social stratificationwill be proportionately great and far-reaching. Of all the political changes of the century by far the greater proportion may be traced to this material expansion pressing against the barriers of privilege, whether of birth, wealth, or race. In internal relations it takes the form of the struggle for constitutional liberty; in external relations, broadly speaking, that for national unity and independence.