About the Concept
State is refered to as a condition or mode of being, as with regard to circumstances. The condition is defined by the stage or form of its structure, growth or development. It is interesting to discern and therefore track the basic attributes of a particular conception in its many uses as derived concepts it is employed by. For instance the basic attributes of the concept of state in its various uses refer in physics as state the condition of a physical system with regard to phase, form, composition or structure. In object-oriented programming, the state of an object is the combination of the original values in the object plus any modifications made to them. The current or last-known status, or condition, of a process, transaction or setting. "Maintaining state" or "managing state" means keeping track of the process.
CURRENT CONCEPT ATTRIBUTES
Employing the concept of state, in the computing field opens up new ways of analysing the particular concept and the attributes employed can be transfered to the other fields the concept of state is used for. Particular attributes of significance are the original values in the object as responsible for the state the object is in, the values of factors or variables acting on the object and confer its state
The term state appears to have been used first in the 17th century out of the intelectual battle of two of the great thinkers of the period, Thomas Hobbes and John Locke as it is mentioned in the book "The Origins of Modern Europe 1660-1789" by James White, 1964, p.131-141. Their ideas have shaped the development of the modern states and their contribution is still evident in the structure of the states today. Thomas Hobbes argued in favour of absolutism by saying that men in the state of Nature are impulsive and entirely selfish, every man's hand is turned against other man, men left to themselves are worse than wolves. Out of the conflict of myriad selfishnesses, therefore, arises a continual state of war, so the condition of man in a state of Nature is uncomfortable and dangerous - 'nasty, poor, brutish, and short'; no justice exists, only 'force and fraud'. To avoid this intolerable state of affairs, which would soon have resulted in the extinction of the human race, men therefore banded together into separate communities in each of which a social contract or covenant was made.
This was done by a large number of them agreeing to choose a sovereign to rule over them. They make the covenant with each other, not with the sovereign himself, who is not a party to it and not in the least bound by it, and thus no right of rebellion exists. Total power must be given to one sovereign, or else he will not be strong enough to keep down anarchy. In this theory, the sovereign could be one sovereign body, a parliament for example, but Hobbes himself preferred a king. Whatever the type of sovereign, he must have total and absolute control over life, opinion, and property - this last because in the state of Nature there could be no property; it is created by the government, which may do with it as it pleases. So government is 'monstrous machine', made by man, 'that great Leviathan called the Commonwealth or State. The only rights Hobbes leaves individuals come logically out of all this; they are the right to resist for self-protection, the right to refuse to fight for the government, and the right to disobey a government incapable of defending its subjects.
Hobbes uses the construt of state of Nature in his arguments for the government of men. How can we understand this state of nature as it is achieved as he claims from the myriad selfisnesses in conflict. We can confidently say that he is not dictating these norms he is only interpreting what is already happening even in its time. Whatever he professes is what he only observes happening as John Locke does too and gives its interpretation. The chaos which is driven, on the substrate of the myriad selfishnesses, by the brutishness, the nastiness, the poorness of men as well as of reason of men as is professed by John Locke.
The rise of Prussia in the 18th century and its effect in the organisation of the modern state
Prussia in the 18th century rose to prominence despite being a small country poor and thinly populated. The Prussian kings devoted their reign in building a strong army. This army in the beggining was supported by foreign subsidies which proved yntenable as it increased the foreign debt. In their effort to support the army locally they increased taxes. Increasing taxes was a first measure but was not enough. It needed an efficient administration to collect the taxes and to make sure that they were not embezzled by the collectors. Measure taken have produced an efficient administration which made that possible. One of the measures introduced to accomplish this was to make the officials responsible for the errors of the errors of the subordinates. The Prussian bureaucracy was the most hardworking, honest, and efficient in Europe, though most of its members could hardly have had much iniative.
How script html variables, linguistic constructs, associated human states and chaos directives can be connected?
Alison W. Phillips, "Modern Europe, European History 1815-1899", 1932
- Only with the development of the great economic revolution of the 19th century did the claim of the 'proletariat' to an effective share of political power become articulate; and, when it does so, the 'individual liberty constitutionally defined', which was the ideal of the Revolution, is replaced by the bondage of the individual to the community, which is the principle of Socialism. That the 'Revolution' is thus put into contradiction with itself is due to the fact that, whatever its abstract ideas, the form of their application has usually been the result of material necessities.
- A condition or mode of being, as with regard to circumstances
- A condition of being in a stage or form, as of structure, growth, or development
- A mental or emotional condition
- The condition of a physical system with regard to phase, form, composition, or structure
- Social position or rank
- The supreme public power within a sovereign political entity
- The sphere of supreme civil power within a given polity
- A specific mode of government
- Owned and operated by a state
- To set forth in words; declare
- Of or relating to a body politic or to an internally autonomous territorial or political unit constituting a federation under one government
- the mode of being or form of existence of a person or thing
- the state of an object is the combination of the original values in the object plus any modifications made to them
- The current or last-known status, or condition, of a process, transaction or setting
- "Maintaining state" or "managing state" means keeping track of the process
- In order to maintain state in a stateless environment, cookie files and server protocols such as NSAPI and ISAPI are used
- Because everything is chopped into packets by the network, maintaining "state" is also an issue when voice is carried over the Internet (voice over IP)
- Techniques are devised to simulate the end-to-end connection of a regular telephone call that would "maintain the state of the call."
- This would readily allow the call to be barged in on, a requirement in certain call centers as well as for emergencies
- In the language of direct marketing, one of the 50 geographic and governmental units of the United States
- Every state has its own laws regarding various aspects of marketing
- Manner of being or form of existence
- A condition of excited distress
- An organized geopolitical unit
- To put into words
- To utter publicly
- To declare by way of a systematic statement
- To put into words positively and with conviction
- Condition, situation
- Information being maintained in non-permanent memory (electronic or human)
- Political organization of society, or the body politic, or, more narrowly, the institutions of government
- The state is distinguished from other social groups by its purpose (establishment of order and security), methods (its laws and their enforcement), territory (its area of jurisdiction), and sovereignty
- The condition of a person or thing
- the group of people comprising the government of a sovereign state
- the territory occupied by one of the constituent administrative districts of a nation
- a politically organized body of people under a single government
- the way something is with respect to its main attributes
- the territory occupied by a nation
Bronislaw Geremek, "Poverty A History", 1994
- The history of cultures, attitudes and social structures does not easily admit of clear divisions into well-defined periods or eras; any such division must be arbitrary. In the history of ideas, doctrines and ideologies, on the other hand, such divisions are easier to define: historical analysis allows us to trace the evolution of concepts and ideas, to discern semantic changes as well as continuities of meaning and connotation. But changes in collective attitudes and value systems are hidden and elusive, and they occur slowly, over a vast time-scale.
- Our points of reference when attempting to trace and define changes of this kind are the great structures of civilization; but when such structures disintegrate, at times of profound crisis, changes in attitudes and behaviour are not always clear and immediate. Nor can civilizations easily be distinguished by clearly defined hierarchies of values, for in each civilization many different value systems coexist, along with vestiges of earlier stages in the development of its culture.